The Royal Line of Scotland through the Centuries

Introduction

Scotland's royal line is lost into the mist of antiquities and can be traced back, without a break in the family, to the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty. As a Scottish Royal line, the roots of Scotland's monarchy are twofold. The Scottish-Irish side made its way from its original kingdom of Dal Riata, then in County Antrim, to Scotland in 498 AD when three brothers, Loarn, Fergus and Angus MacErc, left Ireland in order to expand their outgrown territory in Ireland. Settling in Argyllshire, on the West Coast of Scotland, they created the Kingdom of Dalriada, with a capital at Dunadd, and Fergus was elected King to the new colony. Their system of succession was patriarchal, that is to say that only a male could succeed.
Map of Scotland The East Coast of Scotland was populated by the Picts and their royal family could be traced as far back as the fifth century BC. Their line of succession was matriarchal and only the son of a Pictish Princess, usually married to a close relation, could succeed. By the year 841 AD, the two families had merged together when Kenneth I MacAlpin, grandson of Princess Unuisticc of the Picts and Eochaid IV of the Scots into one single entity. In order to accommodate the Picts, Kenneth I agreed that the royal succession should be based upon the law of tanistry, whereby an uncle could succeed a nephew, a cousin could succeed a nephew, the heir being chosen by both the King (during his lifetime) and an assembly of nobles. The idea was that no boy King under age could ever succeed since this could endanger the peace of the Kingdom.

This system survived till the advent of Malcolm III Canmore, who succeeded Macbeth, when the system of primogeniture was introduced in Scotland. Malcolm III married, as his second wife, the Hungarian born heiress of England, Margaret Aetheling. Being unable to understand the Scots language, the ideals of the Scottish Celtic Church and Scotland's traditions, Margaret decided to bring into Scotland the concepts of Catholicism and the succession of primogeniture upon her own progeny, thus by-passing the children that Malcolm III had had by his first wife, Ingibiorg. It can be said that Margaret Aetheling created the big divide between the Highlands and the Lowlands of Scotland and the Celtic Church, so staunchly supported by Macbeth, found itself facing an almost extinction. When she died in 1093, the Highlands breathed a sigh of relief and supported the sons of Ingibiorg and Malcolm's brother, Donald Bane, in their bid to the crown. The progeny of Margaret, however, won the day and three of her six sons succeeded to the ancient crown of Scotland. Edgar, Alexander I and David I.



Line of Robert The Bruce
Royal Line

His life, exploits and achievements, together with the manner of his death, were commemorated by Actor Mel Gibson in the Hollywood film 'Braveheart'.

Following Wallace's death, Robert the Bruce, grandson to the original Bruce competing for the crown of Scotland, took over the reins of the kingdom as Robert I of the Scots following his coronation at Scone in 1306. Scotland's complete independence was fought, and won, against the forces of Edward II at the Battle of Bannockburn on June 24th 1314. The rest, as they say, is history

Bruce's Seal

King Robert the Bruce's Royal Seal

William Wallace

Sir William Wallace



King Robert I
King of Scots

Wife of the King

Bruce

Robert I (the Bruce)
Born 1274
Acceded 1306
Died 1329

Isobel_of_mar

Isabel of Mar

Coat_of_Arms_Isobell_of_Mar

Coat of Arms
Isobel of Mar

Robert Bruce is Scotland's great patriot hero. He moulded a growing feeling of Scottish nationality into a fighting force against English invasion and overlordship. Though some say that he had begun as a supporter of Edward I, Robert Bruce rebelled, killed his rival, John Comyn, and had himself crowned at Scone in 1306. In trying to rally support, he suffered many setbacks. However, gradually defeats were replaced by captures of Scottish castles once upon a times held by the English. Edward II, though no warrior, was forced to a showdown in 1314. Bruce at last risked open battle and put Edward to flight at Bannockburn, Scotland's greatest victory. He himself had before the battle taken on and killed an English knight in single combat. Peace did not come until 1328, but Bruce was in undisputed command of Scotland. An indomitable leader, he symbolised the spirit of the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320: "So long as a hundred of us remain we will never be subject to the English King".



Walter 6th High Steward

Walter,

Walter,
6th High Steward of Scotland Meeting Marjorie Lady of Scotland

Bruce of Annandale

Bruce of Annandale
Coat of Arms

Coat of Arms

Coat of Arms
Marjorie Bruce
Princess of Scotland



King Robert II

Robert II

Robert II "The Steward"
Born 1316
Acceded 1371
Died 1390

Son of Marjorie Bruce (daughter of Robert and Isabel)
and Walter, 6th High Steward of Scotland.

Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan

Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan

Coat of Arms

Coat of Arms
Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan
Robert II was the founder of the Royal House of Stewart. His mother, Marjorie, had been Robert Bruce's daughter and had married Walter, High Steward of Scotland. Robert was guardian of the Kingdom during David II's period of exile, but by the time of his accession aged 54, he was past taking a firm grip on the country. He did, however, managed to keep England's territorial greed at bay. To other ambitious nobles, he appeared only an earl who had come to inherit the crown by default, though The Three Estates, the Parliament of Scotland, had decreed that Robert was the true heir of David II during the latter's lifetime. While the aristocracy sought to destroy royal authority, he in humility handed over power to his sons. His troubles were increased by the disputed legitimacy of his eldest children, even though the papacy had declared his first marriage to have been legal.



King Robert III

Robert III

Robert III
Born 1337
Acceded 1390
Died 1406

Anabella Drummond of Stobhall

Anabella Drummond of Stobhall

Coat of Arms

Coat of Arms
Anabella Drummond of Stobhall

Born John Earl of Carrick, his name was changed to Robert, John being considered a unlucky name in Scotland. Robert III had been lamed by a kick from a horse in his teenage years, and to physical disability he added a neurotic and despondent temperament. He described himself as "the worst of kings and the most wretched of men in the whole realm". However, it can be said that Robert did his best under unfortunate circumstances and the fact that the nobles contested a royal authority very much in the decline. The King's younger brother Robert, Duke of Albany, wielded greater power than the king. In order to protect his young son and heir, James, from Albany's ambition, Robert sent the Prince to France. But James was captured by English pirates, and this helped to hasten the King's death.



King James I

James I

James I
Born 1394
Acceded 1406
Died 1437

Joan Beaufort

Joan Beaufort

Joan Beaufort coat of arms

Coat of Arms
Joan Beaufort

From the age of 11 to 29 James was a prisoner at the English court of Henry IV and Henry V, and Scotland was wracked by the disorders of Albany's regency. On his return he took an immediate grip on the reins of power and restored law and order. He executed some of the nobles who were a threat to him, including his own cousin Murdoch of Albany. Others lost their lands. He used Parliament to pass laws underlining his authority and regulating the lives of his people - including a ban on football on Sundays. His rule was decisive and Scotland's trades were all the better for it. Both an athlete and a poet, he believed that conspicuous wealth enhanced royal power. But some nobles, including a Stewart cousin of his, he had antagonised conspired against him and murdered him in his lodging at the Blackfriar monastery at Perth.



King James II

James II

James II
Born 1430
Acceded 1437
Died 1460

Marie de Gueldres

Marie de Gueldres

Coat of Arms

Late mediaeval Scotland was plagued by a succession of minority rules: James II was only six when he father was killed. Rival family groupings, even within Stewart collateral lines, competed for domination - and even possession of the King - during his minority. At 18 he married Mary of Gueldres, a niece of the Duke of Burgundy, and at the same time took a firm grip on the reins of power. He struck at great families like the Douglasses, annexing lordships and castles to the crown. A man of political intelligence and resolution, he was more popular and less ruthless than his father. But his reassertion of royal authority was cut short by one of his own enthusiasm - for the use of artillery. Besieging Roxburgh Castle, he was killed when one of his own gun blew up near him. Mons Meg, the bombard now on show in Edinburgh Castle, was a wedding gift to James from the Duke of Burgundy.



King James III

James 3

James III
Born 1452
Acceded 1460
died 1488

Margaret of Denmark

Margaret of Denmark

Margaret of Denmark coat of arms

Coat of Arms
Margaret of Denmark

James III's boyhood was very much like his father's. Succeeding aged eight he was prey to ambitious lords and family feuds. In manhood he proved more interested in music and architecture, astrology and alchemy, in poetry and play. James III was a precursor of the renaissance Kings of Europe. Skilled in diplomacy, especially in church affairs, he bid for the office of Holy Roman Emperor in order to remind Europe that Scotland was a power to reckon with. James III cared little for the hereditary rights of the nobles to Lord it over the people and surrounded himself with people of merit to whom he entrusted the running of the State. The aristocracy, thus by-passed, declared James's leadership inadequate and rebelled twice against their king, killing several of James' favourites at Lauder Bridge. The second showdown showed a rebel army headed by his own son - the future James IV - fighting and winning the King's troops at the battle of Sauchieburn. Fleeing from the site, the king was pursued and killed. His reign was marked by the acquisition of Orkney and Shetland, following his marriage to Margaret, daughter of King Christian I of Denmark. The Kingdom of Scotland was now complete.



King James IV

James IV

James IV
Born 1473
Acceded 1488
Died 1513

Margaret Tudor

Margaret Tudor

Margaret Tudor coat of arms

Coat of Arms
Margaret Tudor

More is known about James IV than about any earlier monarch: to a small country such as Scotland he seemed by his love of extravagant display, by his patronage of earning and printing, by his education and minimal wage bills, and by his emphasis on royal authority Scotland's nearest approach to a Renaissance Prince. Yet in mediaeval penance for treachery to his father, he burdened himself with an iron belt. Much involved with European diplomacy and even with planning a Crusade, he tried to cement good relations with England and in 1503 he married Margaret Tudor, Henry VIII's sister. From this union of the thistle and the rose sprang the union of the Crowns a century later. The centuries-old French alliance at last led James to change policy, cross the Border and meet disaster and death at Flodden. The battle was not at the time regarded as irredeemable catastrophe, but with the death of a popular monarch there ended, as later troubles showed, a brief golden age.



King James V

James 5

James V
Born 1512
Acceded 1513
Died 1542

Marie de Guise

Marie de Guise

Marie de Guise

Coat of Arms
Marie de Guise

At Flodden James V was merely one year old. During his long minority the faction fighting gradually took a new form: the leading nobles and churchmen divided into those who supported the French alliance and those wanting to align with Henry VIII of England. James, of course, favoured the traditional French side, and married in turn two French princesses. His assertion of royal power was marked by vindictiveness towards nobles in disfavour, usually those with pro-English views, and cupidity towards church wealth. Popular with the people who had nicknamed their monarch 'The guid man of Ballengeich', James V faced an English army at the battle of Solway Moss in 1542 with a Scottish army riven by treachery. Cast into despair by the defeat and by the recent deaths of his two infant sons, James died aged only 30 - leaving as his heir his daughter Mary, then just seven days old.



Mary Queen of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots
Born 1542
Acceded 1542
Died 1587

Francis 2nd of France

First Marriage
Francis 2nd of France

Francis 2nd of France

Coat of Arms
Francis 2nd of France

One of the greatest romantic figures of World history, Mary is still a cause for speculation and debate. Did she bring her tragic fate upon herself, or was she more sinned against than sinning? From the age of five she spent her girlhood at the French court, and at 15 married the Dauphin Francois of France, who soon became King but was also to leave Mary a widow at 17. She returned to Scotland, a Roman Catholic stranger, to a homeland undergoing political and ecclesiastical revolution, with the end of French power and the triumph of Protestant Reformers like John Knox. At first, by her striking attractiveness and gaiety, Mary won affection and kept opposing forces in balance. But from about 1565 she allowed her heart to rule her heart to rule her head. Her private secretary, Rizzio, was murdered in a plot which involved Henry, Lord Darnley, her second husband. She was then accused of complicity in the murder of Henry who was blown up and strangled in his house in Edinburgh's Grassmarket. Her third husband, the Earl of Bothwell, was a Presbyterian but was totally in favour of Mary's cause. Civil war brokeout. Mary was imprisoned on Loch Leven and forced to abdicate. Escaping her island prison, she lost a battle at Langside and fled to England. For a full twenty years, by her claim to the English crown, she represented a Catholic threat to her cousin Elizabeth I and she was beheaded in 1587.

Her Grandmother sees her for the first time. " She is very pretty, and as intelligent a child as you could see. She is brune, with a clear complexion, and I think that when she develops she will be a beautiful girl, for her complexion is fine and clear, and her skin white. The lower part of her face is very well formed, the eyes are small and rather deep-set, the face is rather long, she is graceful and self-assured". Antoinette de Bourbon to Mary of Guise, October 1548.

"...So graceful was her French that the judgement of the most learned men recognised her command of the language; nor did she neglect Spanish or Italian, although she aimed rather at a useful knowledge rather than a pretentious fluency. She followed Latin more readily than she spoke it ... Her excellency in singing arose from a natural, not an acquired ability to modulate her voice; the instrument she played were the harp and harpsichord ..." Connaeus. "...There was hardly any branch of human knowledge, indeed, of which she could not talk well. Above all, she loved poetry and poets, especially Monsieur de Ronsard, Monsieur du Bellay and Monsieur de Maison Fleur, who wrote charming poems and elegies for her ..." Brantome.

Mary's journey to France "We landed in this place, Saint Pol de Leon, on the 15 day of this month of August, having been eighteen days on board ship amidst heavy storms. We were almost compelled on two or three occasions to return to port at Dumbarton... One night, when the sea was wondrously wild with the biggest waves I ever saw, to our great consternation, the rudder of our galley was broken ... She (Mary) has been less ill upon the sea than any of her company, so that she made fun of those that were." The Sieur de Breze to Mary of Guise, August 3rd 1548.

To Francis, Heir to the French Throne 24 April, 1558 "Upon the next Sunday, the 24th of April, the marriage was solemnised and completed betwixt them by the Cardinal of Bourbon, Archbishop of Rouen, in Notre Dame Kirk of Paris; in presence and assistance of the King, Queen, and many prelates, noblemen, ladies and gentlemen of all estates and callings ...which being done, they entered into the bishop's palace, where there was a sumptuous and princely dinner prepared for the whole company; and after they had dined, there was used a princely dancing, called the ball royal, to the great comfort and pleasure of all being there present." Lesley's history of Scotland

Mary, Queen of Scots
Born 1542
Acceded 1542
Died 1587

Henry, Lord Darnley

Second Marriage
Henry, Lord Darnley

Coat of Arms

Coat of Arms
Henry,
Lord Darnley
Marriage and widowhood

"By degrees everyone will forget the death of the late king ... except the young Queen, his widow ... the thought of widowhood at so early an age, and the loss of a consort so dearly loved to her, so afflicts her that she will not receive any consolation, but, brooding over her disasters with constant tears and passionate and doleful lamentations, she universally inspires great pity."

Randolph to Cecil, 1562. "Her journey is cumbersome, painful, and marvellous long: the weather extreme foul and cold, all victuals marvellous dear; and the corn that is, never like to come to ripeness ... On Tuesday last she arrived at Old Aberdeen, preparing herself against her entry the next day into the new town, where she was honourably received with spectacles, plays, interludes and others as they could best devise ...They presented her with a cup of silver, double gilt, well wrought, with 500 crowns in it; wine, coals and wax were sent in, as much as will serve her while she remains here."

John Knox The first blast against the monstruous regiment of women "To promote a woman to beare rule, superioritie, dominion or empire above any realm, nation or citie, is repugnat to nature, cotumelie to god, a thing most contranious to his revealed will and approved ordinance, and finallie it is the subversion of good order, of all equitie and justice."

Married again To her cousin, Lord Darnley, 29 July 1565 "Upon Sunday, in the morning, between five and six, she was conveyed by divers of her nobles to the chapel. She had upon her back the great mourning gown of black, with the great wide mourning hood, not unlike unto that which she wore the doleful day of the burial of her husband. The words were spoken, the rings, which were three, the middle a rich diamond, were put upon her finger, they kneel together, and many prayers said over them ... he taketh a kiss, and leaveth her there and went to her chamber, wither in a space she followeth and there being required, according to the solemnities, to cast off her care, and lay aside those sorrowful garnments, and give herself to a pleasanter life." Letter from the English Ambassador to the Earl of Leicester 1565

and again To James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell 15 May, 1567 "Upon the fifteenth of May, 1567, Marie by the Grace of Good queen of scots, was married to Earle Bothwell in the palace of Holyroodhouse within the auld chapel ... not with the mass but with preaching, at ten ours before noon. There was not many of the nobility of this realm there. At this marriage there was neither pleasure nor pastime used, as use was wont to be used when princesses were married."
Diurnal of Occurents

An eye-witness report of Mary's execution

"She passed out of the entry into the great hall, with her countenance carelesse, importing thereby rather mirth than mornefull cheare, and so willingly stepped up to the scaffold which was prepared for her in the hall, being two foote high and twelve broade, with rayles round aboute, hangd and couvered with blacke, with a lowe stoole, long cushion, and blocke, couvered with black also." "Lying very still on the blocke, one of the executioners holding her slitely with one of his handes, she endured two strokes of the other executioner with his axe, she making very smale noyse or none at all, and not stirring any parte of her from the place where she lay; and so the executioner cutt of her head, saving one little grisle, which being cut asunder, he lift up her head to view of all assembly, and bad 'God save the Queene'. Her face in a moment being so much altered from the forme she had when she was alive, as few could remember her by her dead face. Her lippes stirred up and downe a quarter of an hower after her head was cut off." "The Q. of Sc; having aboute her necke an Agnus Dei, in her hand Cricifex, at her girdle a paire of beades with a golden crosse at the end of them, a Latin booke in her hand, began with teares and with loude and fast voice to pray in Latin. Her prayers being ended, the executioners, kneeling, desired her Grace to forgive them her death; who answered, 'I forgive you with all my harte, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles." "One of the executioners espied her little dogg which was crept under her clothes, which could not be gotten forth but by force, yet afterwards wold not departe from the dead corpes, but came and lay betweene her head and her shoulders, which being imbrued with her bloode, was caryed away and washed, as all thinges ells were that had any bloode was either burned or clean washed: and the executioners sent away with mony for their fees. And so, everyman being comaunded out of the hall, except the Sherife and his men, she was caryed by them up into a great chamber lying ready for the surgeons to imbalme her."



King James VI

Coat of Arms

Coat of Arms
James VI of the Scots,
as I of England

James VI

James VI

Anne of Denmark

Anne of Denmark

Coat of Arms

Coat of Arms

Anne of Denmark

James, the son of Mary and Darnley, is one of the great Scottish monarchs, whose achievements have been neglected because of his less successful rule in England. He reigned in both kingdoms on Elizabeth I's death in 1603. From then, he ruled Scotland from London "with my pen", but with, until his last years, the same skill as he had shown since taking personal control in the 1580s. Brought up amid turmoil and bloodshed, he showed himself a hater of violence but skilled in cautious diplomacy. He stressed the authority of kingship in order to counter the extreme Presbyterians; Unlike earlier Stewarts he tried to harness the power of the magnates instead of smashing them. The Highlands and Borders were made subject to law and order. A theologian and scholar, he wrote widely on everything from witchcraft to the evils of smoking and was referred to by fellow kings as 'The Solomon of Britain'.



King Charles I

Charles I

Charles I
Born 1600
Acceded 1625
Died 1649

Henrietta Maria of France

Henrietta Maria of France

Coat of Arms

Coat of Arms
Henrietta of France

Charles I was the second son of James VI, his elder brother Henry Frederick having died of fever in London in 1612. He left Scotland at the age of three, and so lacked his father's understanding of Scottish sensibilities, as he lacked James's political skills. A great patron of the arts, in government he was inflexible even when facing disaster. His attempt to restore the Church influence and ceremony in Scotland and to introduce an English-style liturgy produced the National Covenant, a revolt which led to two brief wars before the English civil war. The Presbyterian covenanters supported the English parliamentarians, but royalist support reasserted itself in an unsuccessful Highland campaign led by the Marquis of Montrose in an attempt in 1648 to restore Charles I to power. His trial by Cromwell and Charles' execution by the axe in the Palace of Whitehall in January 1649 shocked Scottish opinion.



Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell
Born 1599
Ruled 1649-1658
Died 1658

Cromwell first entered Parliament in 1628 as a Puritan. In 1642, Civil War broke in England between Charles I and the Puritan Party that was bent on reforming England and imposing an austere rule. Developing an effective cavalry force in East Anglia, Cromwell became Parliament's leading general by 1645. Till 1649, Cromwell and Charles I's forces fought one another. Having secured the King under lock and key, Cromwell organised Charles I's trial and execution in 1649, when King Charles I was beheaded at Whitehall on January 30th, 1649.

Having murdered the King, Cromwell had to fight the forces of Charles II who had been crowned King of Scots at Scone in 1650. Defeated at the battle of Worcester, Charles II fled, first to France and then to The Hague in Holland. From then on, Cromwell was fully in charge of Britain, having dismissed Parliament in 1653 and proclaiming himself 'Lord Protector of England'. Allowing a new Parliament to sit at Westminster, Cromwell dismissed it in 1655, dividing England into 11 districts, each ruled by a Major-General. Britain was, effectively, ruled by an un-elected dictatorship. Offered the crown of England in 1657, which he refused, Cromwell died in 1658, leaving the reins of the Commonwealth of Britain into the hands of his son Richard.

Unlike his father, Richard Cromwell was made of a softer mettle and General Monk decided to help restore Charles II to the three crowns of Great Britain and Ireland and on May 29th, 1660, the Glorious Restoration was achieved when Charles II was proclaimed King.



King Charles II

Charles II

Charles II
Born 1630
Acceded 1649 (restored 1660)
Died 1685

Catherine of Braganza

Catherine of Braganza

Catherine of Braganza

Coat of Arms
Catherine of Portugal

On his father's death, the young Charles II was crowned King of Scots at Scone. Cromwell led an army North and defeated the Scots at Dunbar. In 1651 another Scottish army went South but was beaten at Worcester, and Charles fled to France. Restored amid rejoicing in 1660, the "merry monarch" vowed never to go on his travels ever again, devoting his cynical skills to that effect. Having encountered the prickly Scottish extremists in his youth, he left the government of his Northern Kingdom to Commissioners. They spent much time and energy on repressing the minority of covenanters who refused to accept the restored Scottish episcopacy. Remote from the lively if amoral Restoration court, Scotland was ruled for a few years by the King's brother, James, Duke of Albany, as Lord High Chancellor. James endeavoured to fight the fact that Scotland languished politically and suffered economically by English discrimination against Scottish trade.



King James VII

James VII of the Scots, II of England

James VII of the Scots, II of England
Born 1633
Acceded 1685
Died 1701

Mary Beatrix of Modena

Mary Beatrix of Modena

Coat of Arms

Coat of Arms
Mary Beatrix of Modena

Since Charles II and his wife, Catherine of Braganca, had no children, James VII and II succeeded his brother. He had ruled Scotland as the King's representative since 1681, but despite his strong leadership North of the Border, his conversion to Catholicism soon antagonised the hierarchy of the Anglican Church of which he was Governor. Even when he tried to introduce religious tolerance in the interests not only to Catholics, but to Presbyterians, Jews and Quakers alike, he failed to secure the loyalty of the Church and Anglican Bishops who had given him their fealty. This coupled with his promise to Louis XIV of France not to involve Scotland and England in the French war against Holland, prompted seven Bishops of the Church of England (St Asaph, Bath and Wells, Bristol, Chichester, Ely, Peterborough and the Archbishop of Canterbury) to offer the crown of England to his son-in-law, William of Orange who took the opportunity by invading England with an army composed of 2/3 Catholic mercenaries. The so-called 'Glorious Revolution' of 1688 was initiated in England and gained some impetus, thanks to English bribes, in lowland Scotland. James, remembering the effects of the civil war of the 1640s led by Cromwell, resigned himself to live in exile in France with his wife, Mary of Modena, and his son, the newly born Prince of Wales. The following year Highlanders loyal to James rose under Graham of Claverhouse, "Bonnie Dundee", but he was killed during the battle of Killiecrankie. James had to flee to France were he died 13 years later. By his first marriage to Anne Hyde of Clarendon, James had two daughters, the future Queens Mary II and Anne I. His second marriage to Mary of Modena produced James, Prince of Wales, the "Old Pretender" and Princess Louise Marie Therese who died in Paris in 1712 aged 20.



King James VIII

James VIII of the Scots, III of England

James VIII of the Scots, III of England
Born 1688
Acceded 1701
Died 1766

Clemetina Sobieska of Poland

Clemetina Sobieska of Poland

Coat of Arms

Coat of Arms
Clemetina Sobieska of Poland

Recognised as King by Louis XIV, the King of Spain and the Pope, James succeeded his father in exile in France. By May 1707, Scotland's Parliament was no longer extant and the Treaty of Union, despised in Scotland, ruled the land. Following the death, in 1714, of Queen Anne, who had never visited her Northern Kingdom for fear of her life, the Hanoverian George I came to the throne, unable to speak English and caring little for his new Kingdom. 1715 and 1718 saw two Jacobite attempts to restore the Stewart monarch but failed in their endeavour to do so. There were Jacobite sympathisers all over Britain, but their strongest concentration was in the Highlands, were both uprisings originated. In 1715 James Edward Stewart (James VIII, III) came over from France to claim his inheritance, but arrived only after an indecisive battle at Sheriffmuir had already destroyed the morale of his clan supporters. A few hours away from being crowned at Scone, an army led by the Duke of Argyll obliged James to flee back to France. In 1720, he married Princess Clementina Sobieska of Poland by whom he had two sons, Prince Charles Edward Stewart, Prince of Wales, and Prince Henry Benedict, Duke of York. James died in Rome in 1766.



King Charles III

Charles III

Charles III
Born 1720
Acceded Scotland 1745 England 1766
Died 1788

Clemetina Walkinshaw of Barrowfield

Clemetina Walkinshaw of Barrowfield
Charles III

Princess Louise of Stolberg Gedern

Princess Louise of Stolberg Gedern
Charles III

Countess Marguerite O'Dea d'Audibert de Lussan
Countess Marguerite O'Dea d'Audibert de Lussan

Charles Edward came to Scotland in 1745 with the firm intention to restore his father upon the thrones of his ancestors and raised his standard at Glenfinnan. Thousands joined him and assured the rising with a prospect of success. Edinburgh was captured and a Government army was defeated at Prestonpans in September 1745, following which Charles was symbolically crowned King of Scots in the Abbey of Holyroodhouse. Charles 'liberated' England as far South as Derby but English support was slow in coming and the Jacobite Council, led by Sir George Murray, decided to retreat back to Scotland were Charles' army was devastated at Culloden by the vengeful Duke of Cumberland. The latter pursued a policy of ethnic cleansing and wanted the English Parliament to pass a bill requiring all Highland women to be sterilised. The bill was rejected and Cumberland gained the nickname of 'The Butcher' from the Londoners who were appalled at the Duke's behaviour in war.

Taken from the battlefield, Charles roamed the Highlands for six months, never betrayed despite the sum of £ 30.000 for his capture, dead or alive. Taken back to France, Charles travelled afar, never finding a home for himself. In 1750, while on a secret trip to London, he converted to Anglicanism. He made further trips back to Scotland, namely to Edinburgh and Glasgow, under the guise of a wine merchant. By 1753, he was the father of four children, three by Miss Clementina Walkinshaw of Barrowfield, and one by his cousin Louise de Montbazon, Princess de Guemene. In 1772, Charles married his distant cousin Louise, Princess de Stolberg Guedern. Louise, however, left Charles in 1780 to openly live with her lover Vittorio, Count Alfieri. On April 3rd, 1784, Pope Pius VI, through the intercession of the King of Sweden, granted Charles the annulment of his marriage to Louise. This enabled Charles to marry, at the age of 65, his cousin Marguerite, Comtesse de Massillan, who gave birth to a son Prince Edward James of Albany, Duke of Kendal and Kintyre, in October 1786. Recognised by Napoleon I, the Princely Counts of Albany detain a proper right to succeed to the Honours of Scotland. In 1913, the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th Counts having declared their right to the Crown of St Edward (England) only to be nil and void.

Here Stewarts once in triumph reigned
And laws for Scotland's weal ordained.
But now unroof'd their palace stands;
Their sceptre fall'n to other hands.
Afar th'illustrious Exile roams,
Whom kingdoms on this day should hail !
An innate of the casual shed;
On transient Pity's bounty fed ...
He who should imperial purple wear
Owns not the lap of earth where rests his royal head;
His wretched refuge, dark Despair.
Robert Burns,
Birthday ode for Prince Charlie
31 December 1787



HRH Princess Charlotte

Charlotte of Albany

Charlotte of Albany
Born 1753
Died 1789

Charlotte of Albany coat of arms

The daughter of Charles Edward Stuart and Clementina Walkinshaw of Barrowfield, Charlotte was born in Liege in present-day Belgium. She was Charles Edward's third child by Clementina and final child by Clementina. By then, Charles was father to five children altogether.

When Clementina left Charles Edward in 1760, both mother and daughter moved to the Convent de la Visitation de Sainte Marie in Paris as pensioners of the Crown of France. So as to be able to draw an extra pension, the Emperor of Austria made Clementina 'Countess of Alberstroff' within the Holy Roman Empire. Following Charles' accession as titular King of Great Britain, France and Ireland in 1766, Clementina was required to sign a statement whereby she declared that she had never been Charles' wife. This, however, was not particularly the case. She had, technically, married Charles Edward by declaration in Scotland in January 1746 and, under Scots Law, any children they would have had together would, in those days, have been considered lawful.

Charlotte joined her father in Florence in 1785, having secretly given birth to three children whose father was Prince Ferdinand de Rohan, Archbishop of Cambrai. She died in 1789 following a serious operation from which she did not survive.

Her son, Charles Edward Maximilien de Rohenstart (de Rohan Stuart) died without issue and is buried in Dunkeld Cathedral, Scotland. Her daughters, Aglae Clementine and Marie Beatrix, married and had issue. One of their descendant is HRH Prince Michael of Albany.



HRH Prince Edward James

HRH Prince Edward James Stuart

HRH Prince Edward James Stuart
Second Count of Albany
Born 1786
Succeeded 1807
Died 1845

HRH Prince Edward James Stuart coat of arms

The last son and child born to Charles Edward Stuart, Edward James, styled from his birth Duke of Kendal and Kintyre, was the issue of Marguerite O'Dea d'Audibert de Lussan, Comtesse de Massillan, the third wife of Charles Edward Stuart.

A descendant of Charles II and from a staunch Jacobite background, Marguerite was orphaned from very early days and was brought up by her Great Uncle the Archbishop of Bordeaux. A cousin to the Drummonds of Melfort, she came into the household of Charles Edward following the departure of his wife, then Louise of Stolberg Gedern, in 1783 for the arms of her Italian lover, Vitorio, Count Alfieri. Gaining the annulment of his marriage to Louise on April 3rd, 1784, Charles Edward was free to re-marry and took, as his final wife, Marguerite de Massillan. They married in December 1785, in Rome, and she was finally delivered of a son in October 1786. The birth of Edward James assured Charles' succession following his own death in 1788. When Rome was invaded by the French in 1793, both mother and son made their way to the court of King Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia and they remained there until 1802, when they made their way back to Rome.

The British Parliament, however, made sure that the news of the royal birth was suppressed in Britain and it would not be till 1820 that Edward James of Albany made his own bid to succeed to the crown of Scotland. On April 1st, 1820, the Central Belt of Scotland rose against the tyranny of George III and proclaimed Scotland independent. A provisional Government was formed by James Wilson, John Baird and Andrew Hardie (ancestor of the founder of the Scottish Labour Party Keir Hardie). A royal proclamation was duly issued, ending with the words of 'God saves the King'. The King, James IX (Edward James of Albany), was actually waiting to cross the channel from the Danish Port of Esberg. However, due to adverse weather, Edward James was unable to make his way to Scotland and the last jacobite raising in Scotland came to nothing, the plans of the 'rebels' having been betrayed to the government by author Sir Walter Scott. Wilson, Baird and Hardie lost their life as martyrs to Scotland's cause.

Edward James made his way back to Rome, having produced a family, to die in 1845 but not before having been offered the crown of the Belgians in 1831 by Baron Surlet de Choquier, Regent of the new Kingdom. Edward James refused to assent.



HRH Prince Henry Edward

Prince Henry Edward Benedict

Prince Henry Edward Benedict
3rd Count of Albany
Born 1809
Succeeded 1845
Died 1869

Prince Henry Edward Benedict coat of arms

Age 21, Henry of Albany was invited by the government of Charles X of France to act as an official observer in the French offensive against Algiers in 1830. Henry Stuart became a diplomat of some note and became involved, among other events, in the repatriation of the Empress of Mexico, Charlotte of Belgium, to Miramar on behalf of both the Belgian Royal Family and the Pope.

His wife, Agnes de Pescara, was a cousin to the Princes of Palestrina and was related to the best blood of Italy. With the birth of two sons, the Stuart succession was secured. From the youngest, Prince Henry Frederick Alexander, Count of Derneley, came the first collateral line of Stuart Princes descended from Charles Edward Stuart. Although now extinct in the male line, it is believed that there are female descendants living in South America today.



HRH Prince Charles Benedict

Prince Charles Benedict James

Prince Charles Benedict James
4th Count of Albany
Born 1828
Succeeded 1869
Died 1887

Prince Charles Benedict James coat of arms

Charles of Albany was the last member of the family to try to regain the three crowns for his family. However, this action literally killed him.

Once again, the usurpers of Britain, in this instance Queen Victoria, had become rather unpopular in both Scotland and England and a move was instilled by some members of the British aristocracy and a Bishop of the Scottish Episcopalian Church, all of whom were members of the White Rose Society, that the Stuarts should be brought back to rule their native land. Bertram, 5th Earl Ashburnam, was in charge of the plans that would have restored the Stuarts upon the Throne. Projects involving both Scotland and England were secured to re-introduce the Albany line to the nations of Britain, only to be thwarted by the Government of Queen Victoria.

Charles of Albany, then still in Rome, was found dead. Having been smothered, Charles had died from suffocation.

His wife, Louise Dalvray, was the daughter of a noted French Banker and brought the family a new fortune. She gave birth to two sons and one daughter. From the youngest son, Prince Claude Henry Stuart, Duke of Coldingham, is descended the second collateral branch from Charles Edward Stuart. Indeed, should the present head of the Royal House of Stewart, HRH Prince Michael of Albany, die without issue, the rights of succession would then devolve upon HRH Prince Robert Demidoff Stewart, Duke of Coldingham, as heir presumptive to the Royal House of Stewart.



HRH Prince Julius Anthony

Prince Julius Anthony Henry

Prince Julius Anthony Henry
5th Count of Albany
Born 1874
Succeeded 1887
Died 1941

Prince Julius Anthony Henry coat of arms

Italy's political scene determined that the family should move to Belgium and their property of the Chateau du Moulin in the Belgian Ardenne. On settling in Belgium, Prince Julius also decided to revert the French spelling of 'Stuart' to its original Scottish spelling of 'Stewart'.

Prince Julius was a typical aristocrat landowner, running his estate (comprising three villages) and living off the land. With World War One looming, Prince Julius thought it might be expedient to come back to Britain and, in order to do so, willingly gave up his rights to both the Crown of St Edward (England) and the Crown of Great Britain, 'save the original right to the Honours of Scotland'. The document was duly witnessed by a Catholic Cardinal who had been involved in the negotiations. When World War One was declared, when Belgium was invaded, the royal Stewarts were forbidden to make their way back to Britain and no less than six members of the family died in 1916 during the great fire of Brugges.

The family, nevertheless, survived, only to face the upheavals of World War Two, when Prince Julius died in 1941, to be followed a year later by his wife, Joanna Marie Vandenbosch de Monpertingen.



HRH Prince Anthony James

Prince Anthony James

Prince Anthony James
6th Count of Albany
Born 1900
Succeeded 1941
Died 1963

Prince Anthony James coat of arms

An officer in the Belgian Merchant Navy, Prince Anthony James spent most of his life sailing the world and retired at the age of 55. Married but with no children, it was decided that the first male child from his youngest brother's daughter, Princess Renee Julienne Stewart, Lady Derneley, would bear the name of Stewart and would succeed him as head of the Royal House of Stewart. This was done in view of the fact that his younger brother, Prince Julius Joseph James, Lord of Annandale, was a staunch socialist. Princess Renee did not feel compelled to take upon herself the responsibility to lead the Royal Family forward.

As such, following the birth of her first born son (and only child) HRH Prince Michael of Albany in 1958, the King of the Belgians, then King Baudouin I, passed a private bill allowing for the great nephew of Prince Anthony James to bear the name of Stewart and the style of HRH Prince. This could be done because the royal family of Scotland does not follow the Salic law, whereby the succession cannot continue via the maternal line.

Prince Anthony James died in February 1963 and the succession of his great nephew was acknowledged on April 21st during the celebration of Prince Michael's fifth birthday. Prince Anthony's widow, nee Jeanette van Haal, survived him till the late 1980s.



HRH Prince Julius Joseph

Prince Julius Joseph James,

Prince Julius Joseph James,
Lord of Annandale
Born 1906
Died 1985

Prince Julius Joseph James,coat of arms

Marriage to HSH Princess Germaine Elisa Segers de la Tour Princesse de Sedan
Born 1908
Died 1992



HRH Princess Renee

Princess Renee Julienne Stewart
Lady Derneley
Princess Royal of Strathearn
Born 1934

Baron Gustave Lafosse de Chatry
Born 1935

Princess Renee Julienne Stewart coat of arms

Arms of Lafosse de Chatry



HRH Prince Michael

HRH Prince Michael James Alexander Stewart
7th Count of Albany
Born 1958
Succeeded 1963

HRH Prince Michael James Alexander Stewart coat of arms

The only son, child and heir of Her Royal Highness Princess Renee Julienne Stewart, Lady Derneley and Princess Royal of Strathearn, and Baron Gustave Lafosse de Chatry, Prince Michael of Albany is the grandson of the late HRH Prince Julius Joseph James Stewart, Lord of Annandale, and Princess Germaine Elisa Segers de la Tour d'Auvergnes, Princess of Sedan.

Brought privately at the family home until 1968 and, subsequently, at the Jesuit Boarding School of St Vincent College (Belgium), Prince Michael made his way back to Scotland in 1976. Except for an eight months stint in Germany where he had to do his National Service for the Belgian Army, Prince Michael has worked in Scotland ever since, first within the tourism industry, then in the charity world to finally become a successful writer. The author of 'The Forgotten Monarchy of Scotland', presently published by Vega, his book, when first published in 1998, became Scotland's second bestseller and number seven in the UK historical hit parade.

He holds several positions of note in Europe, teaches French privately, and holds the title of Knight Grand Collar within The Sovereign Order of St John of Jerusalem, the Knights of Malta, and the position of 'Head of the Diplomatic Service' within the Order.

It is the wish of HRH Prince Michael of Albany to become the constitutional monarch of an independent Scotland subject to a proper plebiscite on the matter of representation.